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THE MUSICAL TIMES.— September 1, 1855. 



antr Singing #las0 Circular. 

SEPTEMBER 1st, 1855. 


No. I. 

Contributed by E. Holmes. 

(Continued from page 85.) 

Likb Mozart's first Mass in comparison with 
the rest, this of Haydn takes precedence of all 
his other Masses : — the first in number, and in 
excellence. We have need to remember the 
peculiarities of Haydn — especially the joyful 
spirit which he carried into religion — to accept 
this composition as a sacred work ; for the 
voluptuous pleasure of the ear was never more 
excited than by the beautiful melodies, sparkling 
orchestral accompaniments, marked rhythm, and 
phrases that at once reach the heart, existing in 
this Mass ; and nowhere in richer abundance. 
It is the offering of a genial imagination — the 
artist delighting in his work — at the altar of 
joy. In defence of the florid style of Haydn's 
sacred music, the sentiments of the composer 
himself may be referred to in the work called 
Letters on Haydn : — " Whenever he thought 
on God, he could only conceive of him as a being 
infinitely great, and infinitely good. He added 
that this last quality of the divine nature inspired 
him with such confidence and joy, that he could 
have written even a Miserere in tempo allegro." 

The Mass No. 1, in B flat, in addition to the 
four vocal and stringed parts, contains in its 
score oboes, bassoons, trumpets, and drums, and 
in some of the movements clarinets. It is there- 
fore designed for a large, orchestra ; but its chief 
peculiarity is to be more conspicuous than some 
others in its parts for voices ; for Haydn, like 
Mozart, was so attached to the sound of the 
orchestra, as often to have made the voices 
subordinate, and to have produced symphony 
movements with choral accompaniment, rather 
than vocal compositions. The Kyr'ie is full of 
musical impulse and fire ; it is marked by Haydn's 
chords of predilection, and is the evident product 
of a glowing fancy. Twelve bars Adagio, of 
stately movement, and similar notes in voices and 
instruments, introduce it : — 

Vio. 1. 

j Adagio. 



- - n - e 


^= =±±=3 = 

f A 



fKy - - - 


After the two bars which correspond to the 
above, occurs a Gp in the bass, which is a stroke 
of the master, and which might, in the phrase of 
Gluck, be described as a note which " draws 
blood :" 





The effect of the sforzando of the orchestra 
on the chord of £ on the G flat, will be remem- 
bered with delight by every musician who has 
heard this Mass. Haydn enjoyed it, and so 
doubtless did Mozart. Modern music has many 
instances of a single note or harmony of such 
reach as to " make the whole world kin." The 
Allegro moderato begins piano with a melo- 
dious theme : — 


Ky - ri - e 

le - i - son. 

The first orchestral forte after the correspond- 
ing bars, is a complete and characteristic specimen 
of Haydn. What spirit in the two violin parts ! 
What an exhilirating burst the Kyrie of the 
chorus ! — 






These two bars repeated and extended into 
four, the chorus proceeds accompanied by some 
extremely pretty fiddling. The two violins play 
in unison in the annexed passage : — 


THE MUSICAL TIMES.— September 1, 1855. 

Vio. 1. 
Vio. 2. 



' t=, - 4 ^EHE5ife 





- — k — ^jaj»^i ^^r — F — i — — *■" ' — 

son, e - lei - - 




r - 

==3 sS 



If there is somewhat of levity in this progres- 
sion, the dignity of the orchestral and choral 
chords on the pedal F, with which this passage 
concludes, amply redeems it. The subject of the 
fugato is kept up only for thirteen bars, but it is 
interwoven from time to time with the rest of the 
Kyrie : — 

Bass. _.._„_ 4i *£:£ ! V 


Ky - ri - e e - lei-son, e - lei - son. 
Counterpoint then gives place to orchestral 
effect : the chorus is conducted to a fortissimo 
on the chord of F minor, and a passage of repose 
follows on its dominant. This pedal note of 
the first violins has rejoiced many a hearer — the 
distribution of the harmony is beautiful : — 

Ky - - 

Ky - ri 

The full score of this passage may be thus made 
out — the oboes double the alto and tenor voices 
an octave above, the viola and bassoon play in 
unison with the bass voice. The violins continue 
a passage of exulting joy : — 

^^^EJ^j fe feggg^K 

Melodies so bright, gushing forth and kept up 
without abatement from the beginning to the end 
of a movement, are seldom found in music. The 
Christe divides the Kyrie into two parts. The 
second part principally repeats the first — but the 
final cadence is introduced by this forcible and 
dramatic effect of the choral unison : — 


Tenor. J 

Bass. -K y " ri- e 



On the third recurrence of the chromatic phrase, 
it falls with starling energy on a $ on A flat, 
the voices spread out in harmony. This beauti- 
ful composition displays the advancement of music 
after Mozart had written his operas and sym- 
phonies. The date of Haydn's first six Masses 
must be in the years approaching 1790. 

Unison effects form a great feature of the 
Gloria, which is designed in three movements. 
The first of these begins with a vociferous jubi- 
lation on the common chord and its relatives. 
With the first piano for the stringed instruments, 
the attention is arrested — the melodies become 
full of sweetness. The syncopated phrase — six 
bars answering four — at bonce voluntatis, ex- 
presses sentiments of beauty and tenderness in all 
the parts. This passage is inimitable, and remains 
alone in music. 

Beethoven seems to have been anticipated in 
an effect shortly to be observed. The orchestra 
and chorus re-echo this phrase : — 





^ I Lauda-mus 




». JL 



Lauda-mus te 

After these echoes responding for six bars, 
occurs the following mysterious unison passage, 
a hint in good time for Beethoven : — 

THE MUSICAL TIMES.— September 1, 1855. 



This effect of orchestral coloring seems scarcely 
to belong to the last century. 

The Gratias, G- minor, %, opens with a quar- 
tet* of voices of such melodious counterpoint 
that the instruments accompany in duplicate. 
The tenor leads off — 




Gra - ti-as a - gimus te 
All that the movement of parts can accomplish 
for expression, this movement shows. Passing 
the beautifully-conducted first twelve bars, let us 
take the four following for an example. What 
can show greater elegance of thought or richness 
of invention ? — 

Do-mine De - us Rex 




cce - les - tis 

' v i . r I 

Jtfi^J. JJ3: 

Do-mine De - us Eex coe - les - tis 
This sedate and expressive movement goes off 
into a chorus in | — 

Qui tol - - lis. 

a piece of close counterpoint fugato. The Mise- 
rere, uttered by the chorus in unison, while the 
orchestra sustain the chords, is dramatically effec- 
tive, and there is a more imposing instance of 
this at the words Qui sedes. The Quoniam con- 
sists of an orchestral introduction and a fugue on 
two subjects, one of the finest that ever fell from 
the pen of composer. The principal und the 
counter-subject begin at once with animation — 



■ Allegro vivace. 

ilo - ri- a De - i Pa - trii 



men A - men, 

introducing one of the most brilliant examples of 
a fugue clearly conducted to the end in the 
double counterpoint of the octave and the tenth. 
At once beautiful and scientific, it has never been 
excelled by Haydn, even in his oratorios. 

Of the profusion of melodies in this Mass the 
Credo is an example ; its simple joyous opening 
pleases every ear. The Et incarnatus, in E flat, 
2, Adagio, is of poetical design and profound 
expression ; opening in the form of a round for 
women's voices, it is followed by a trio for men, 
and a magnificent tutti piano of the choir. The 
Passus tells of an advanced period of music, and 
of Beethoven, in the bare intervals ; octaves hold- 
ing in treble and tenor, and moving in alto and 
bass : — 

Adagio. Passus, Pas 
Tutti. p 

- sus, 


This crescendo possesses an awful beauty, and is, 
in its elevation of feeling, sublime. Peculiar 
sentiments connected with the Et incarnatus 
wrought upon the genius of Haydn, and trans- 
ported him beyond himself in this department of 
his Masses. He is often successful in setting 
these words. The closing bars are the first 
subject sung tutti piano, producing angelical 
sweetness of effect. A study in the art of accom- 
paniment is presented in the few notes and 
delicate touches, of the score, especially in the 
manner in which the clarinets and bassoons aid 
the voices. 

At Et resurrexit, the Allegro proceeds in |, 
with music of a vigorous and dramatic coloring, 
fitted to introduce one of the most sprightly 
efforts of genius inthe whole work — the accom- 
panied Amen fugue Et vitam — 

Vivace assai 



THE MUSICAL TIMES.— September 1, 1855. 

Without one moment's relaxation, this impetuous 
violin part is maintained throughout the fugue ; 
the effect is indescribably brilliant. The tempo 
is quick, like the minuet of a symphony ; and the 
melodious voice parts, with the vivacity of the 
violins, keep the hearer in an ecstacy of enjoyment 
No one could have produced this delightful fugue 
but Haydn — the character of the subjects and 
accompaniment, vivace assai, in triple time, is 
marked by the speciality of his genius. It is 
probable that he was the inventor of the fugue 

The Sanctus and Pleni sunt Cceli are inferior 
to the rest of the work. The Osanna is very 
pretty. This point of clear natural imitation is 
the work of a master : — 

O-san - na 









KJ^^ti J. 

O-san-na in ex- eel - sis, in ex - 

Nothing better becomes the lucid Haydn than 
a playful strain of counterpoint. The Benedictus 
in E flat, begins with the theme for a quartet 
movement, and is a very elegant piece of music. 
We miss in it, however, that religious sweetness 
and celestial character which in Mozart's treat- 
ment of the Benedictus seem an inspiration of 
the Divinity. The Agnus Dei, in B flat minor, 
looks like a leaf out of the " Seven last words " — 
the style is closely similar to those celebrated 
Adagios. It is accompanied only by stringed 
instruments, depending upon the beauty of the 
melodious parts for its interest, and in this respect 
it is perfection. After two bars from the instru- 
ments, staccato and piano, to excite attention, 
the choir begins mezzo forte : — 

Ag - nus De - i, 




j A d agio. . m^, Vio. J"— . 

Vio> 1— ' 

35-r— — -0- — | J-r-» '■*■*- m-pjL—mHtzer- 

r-r- ,_^p p. 

Ag - nus De - i 

Basti. sf P 

This mournful theme reminds of the Passione. 
The second principal theme is in D flat major — 
the melody is original in the accent, and of refined 
elegance : — 








Closing as the movement does, in a strain of 
extreme solemnity, it might be perhaps objected 
that the change to the vivacious Dona is some- 
what over-sudden. Such a vigorous masculine 
energy, however, pervades this finale, that it soon 
quiets objections, and carries the hearer with it 
in its triumphant course. The pulses of delight 
beat high through this noble work. The genial 
humanity of the composer is present to us in all 
the symphonies and melodies of this Mass ; the 
love of the thing in him was great; and truly 
music is never so delightful as when " from the 
fulness of the heart the pen speaketh." 

(To be continued.) 



By. Maby Cowden Clakke. 

(Continued from page 86. ) 

It would be injustice to advert to Shelley's renowned 
poem on the Sky-lark, without giving it entire. 
Throughout, it is musical, — in its poetic harmony, its 
subject, and its exciting beauty. 

" Hail to thee, blithe spirit 1 
Bird thou never wert, 
That from heaven, or near it, 
Pourest thy full heart 
In profuse strains of unpremeditated art. 

Higher still and higher 

From the earth thou springest, 
Like a cloud of fire ! 

The blue deep thou wingest. 
And Binging, still dost soar, and soaring ever singest. 

In the golden lightning 

Of the sunken sun, 
O'er which clouds are brightening, 

Thou dost float and run, 
Like an embodied joy, whose race is just begun. 
The pale purple even 

Melts around thy flight; 
Like a star of heaven 

In the broad daylight, 
Thou art unseen, but yet I hear thy shrill delight. 
Keen as are the arrows 

Of that silver sphere, 
Whose intense lamp narrows 

In the white dawn clear, 
Until we hardly see, we feel that it is there. 

All the earth and air 

With thy voice is loud, 
As, when night is bare, 

From one lonely cloud 
The moon rains out her beams, and heaven is overflowed. 
What thou art, we know not ; 

What is most like thee ? 
From rainbow clouds there flow not 

Drops so bright to see, 
As from thy presence showers a rain of melody.